Posts by Tag

php

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Help - Hack The Box

Help showed that a small programming mistake in a web application can introduce a critical security vulnerability. In this case, the PHP application errors out when uploading invalid extensions such as PHP files but it doesn’t delete the file. Combined with a predictable filename generated based on MD5 of original file + epoch, we can get RCE.

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

Vault - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Vault, a machine with pivoting across different network segments.

Curling - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Curling, a pretty easy box with Joomla running. We can log in after doing basic recon and some educated guessing of the password.

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

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slae

Creating a custom shellcode crypter

For this last SLAE assignment, I’ve created a custom shellcode crypter using the Salsa20 stream cipher. Salsa20 is a family of 256-bit stream ciphers designed in 2005 and submitted to eSTREAM, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project.

Polymorphic Linux Shellcode

This blog post shows 3 polymorphic variants of common shellcodes found on shell-storm.org.

Msfvenom shellcode analysis

This blog post provides an analysis of various common shellcodes generated by the msfvenom utility which is part of Metasploit.

Custom shellcode encoder

A shellcode encoder can be used for different purposes such as modify an existing shellcode to make it harder to detect by AV engines or simply avoid bad characters (such as null-bytes).

Egghunter Linux Shellcode

An egghunter can be useful in situations where the buffer space the attacker controls is limited and doesn’t allow for a full shellcode to be placed on the stack. The egghunter acts as a staged payload: the smaller payload which is executed first looks through the entire process memory space for a marker (the egg) indicating the start of the larger payload. Once the egg is found, the stager jumps to the memory address following the egg and executes the shellcode.

TCP reverse shellcode

A TCP reverse shell connects back to the attacker machine, then executes a shell and redirects all input & output to the socket. This is especially useful when a firewall denies incoming connections but allows outgoing connections.

TCP bind shellcode

A bind shellcode listens on a socket, waiting for a connection to be made to the server then executes arbitrary code, typically spawning shell for the connecting user. This post demonstrates a simple TCP bind shellcode that executes a shell.

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assembly

Creating a custom shellcode crypter

For this last SLAE assignment, I’ve created a custom shellcode crypter using the Salsa20 stream cipher. Salsa20 is a family of 256-bit stream ciphers designed in 2005 and submitted to eSTREAM, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project.

Polymorphic Linux Shellcode

This blog post shows 3 polymorphic variants of common shellcodes found on shell-storm.org.

Msfvenom shellcode analysis

This blog post provides an analysis of various common shellcodes generated by the msfvenom utility which is part of Metasploit.

Custom shellcode encoder

A shellcode encoder can be used for different purposes such as modify an existing shellcode to make it harder to detect by AV engines or simply avoid bad characters (such as null-bytes).

Egghunter Linux Shellcode

An egghunter can be useful in situations where the buffer space the attacker controls is limited and doesn’t allow for a full shellcode to be placed on the stack. The egghunter acts as a staged payload: the smaller payload which is executed first looks through the entire process memory space for a marker (the egg) indicating the start of the larger payload. Once the egg is found, the stager jumps to the memory address following the egg and executes the shellcode.

TCP reverse shellcode

A TCP reverse shell connects back to the attacker machine, then executes a shell and redirects all input & output to the socket. This is especially useful when a firewall denies incoming connections but allows outgoing connections.

TCP bind shellcode

A bind shellcode listens on a socket, waiting for a connection to be made to the server then executes arbitrary code, typically spawning shell for the connecting user. This post demonstrates a simple TCP bind shellcode that executes a shell.

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hackthebox

Secnotes - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Hack the Box SecNotes machine from 0xdf.

Oz - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Oz machine from Hack the Box.

Mischief - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Mischief machine from Hack the Box using the unintended LXC container privesc method.

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linux

Help - Hack The Box

Help showed that a small programming mistake in a web application can introduce a critical security vulnerability. In this case, the PHP application errors out when uploading invalid extensions such as PHP files but it doesn’t delete the file. Combined with a predictable filename generated based on MD5 of original file + epoch, we can get RCE.

Redcross - Hack The Box

Redcross has a bit of everything: Cross-Site Scripting, a little bit of SQL injection, reviewing C source code to find a command injection vulnerability, light exploit modification and enumeration.

Vault - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Vault, a machine with pivoting across different network segments.

Zipper - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Zipper, a Linux box running the Zabbix network monitoring software inside a docker container.

Oz - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Oz machine from Hack the Box.

Mischief - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Mischief machine from Hack the Box using the unintended LXC container privesc method.

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windows

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Querier - Hack The Box

To solve Querier, we find an Excel spreadsheet that contains a VBA macro then use Responder to capture NTLM hashes from the server by forcing it to connect back to our machine with xp_dirtree. After cracking the hash, we gain RCE on the server by using the standard xp_cmdshell command. The Administator credentials are found in a Group Policy Preference file.

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

Access - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Access, a Windows machine involving some enumeration of an Access DB, an Outlook PST and a priv esc using Windows Credential Manager.

Secnotes - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Hack the Box SecNotes machine from 0xdf.

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sqli

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

Redcross - Hack The Box

Redcross has a bit of everything: Cross-Site Scripting, a little bit of SQL injection, reviewing C source code to find a command injection vulnerability, light exploit modification and enumeration.

Giddy - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Giddy, a Windows machine with an interesting twist on SQL injection, PowerShell Web Access and a priv exploiting improper permissions.

Secnotes - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Hack the Box SecNotes machine from 0xdf.

Oz - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Oz machine from Hack the Box.

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command injection

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Redcross - Hack The Box

Redcross has a bit of everything: Cross-Site Scripting, a little bit of SQL injection, reviewing C source code to find a command injection vulnerability, light exploit modification and enumeration.

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

Ethereal - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ethereal, a very difficult Windows machine that I solved using the unintented rotten potato method before the box was patched by the HTB staff.

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ctf

Irked - Hack The Box

Irked is an easy box running a backdoored UnrealIRC installation. I used a Metasploit module to get a shell then ran steghide to obtain the SSH credentials for the low privileged user then got root by exploiting a vulnerable SUID binary.

Teacher - Hack The Box

Teacher uses the Moodle Open Source Learning platform and contains a vulnerability in the math formula that gives us RCE. The credentials for the Moodle application are found in a .png file that contains text instead of an actual image. After getting a shell with the math formula, we find the low privilege user credentials in the MySQL database. We then escalate to root by abusing a backup script running from a cronjob as root.

Curling - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Curling, a pretty easy box with Joomla running. We can log in after doing basic recon and some educated guessing of the password.

Frolic - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Frolic, a CTF-like machine with esoteric programming languages and a nice priv esc that requires binary exploitation.

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containers

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

Oz - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Oz machine from Hack the Box.

Mischief - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Mischief machine from Hack the Box using the unintended LXC container privesc method.

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powershell

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Netmon - Hack The Box

I think Netmon had the quickest first blood on HTB yet. The user flag could be grabbed by just using anonymous FTP and retrieving it from the user directory. I guessed the PRTG admin password after finding an old backup file and changing the year in the password from 2018 to 2019. Once inside PRTG, I got RCE as SYSTEM by creating a sensor and using Nishang’s reverse shell oneliner.

Giddy - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Giddy, a Windows machine with an interesting twist on SQL injection, PowerShell Web Access and a priv exploiting improper permissions.

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enumeration

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

Teacher - Hack The Box

Teacher uses the Moodle Open Source Learning platform and contains a vulnerability in the math formula that gives us RCE. The credentials for the Moodle application are found in a .png file that contains text instead of an actual image. After getting a shell with the math formula, we find the low privilege user credentials in the MySQL database. We then escalate to root by abusing a backup script running from a cronjob as root.

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winrm

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Querier - Hack The Box

To solve Querier, we find an Excel spreadsheet that contains a VBA macro then use Responder to capture NTLM hashes from the server by forcing it to connect back to our machine with xp_dirtree. After cracking the hash, we gain RCE on the server by using the standard xp_cmdshell command. The Administator credentials are found in a Group Policy Preference file.

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

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egghunter

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

Egghunter Linux Shellcode

An egghunter can be useful in situations where the buffer space the attacker controls is limited and doesn’t allow for a full shellcode to be placed on the stack. The egghunter acts as a staged payload: the smaller payload which is executed first looks through the entire process memory space for a marker (the egg) indicating the start of the larger payload. Once the egg is found, the stager jumps to the memory address following the egg and executes the shellcode.

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encoding

Msfvenom shellcode analysis

This blog post provides an analysis of various common shellcodes generated by the msfvenom utility which is part of Metasploit.

Custom shellcode encoder

A shellcode encoder can be used for different purposes such as modify an existing shellcode to make it harder to detect by AV engines or simply avoid bad characters (such as null-bytes).

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lxc

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

Mischief - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Mischief machine from Hack the Box using the unintended LXC container privesc method.

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unintended

Ethereal - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ethereal, a very difficult Windows machine that I solved using the unintented rotten potato method before the box was patched by the HTB staff.

Mischief - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Mischief machine from Hack the Box using the unintended LXC container privesc method.

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pass-the-hash

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

Ypuffy - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ypuffy, an OpenBSD machine from Hack the Box involving a somewhat easy shell access followed by a privesc using CA signed SSH keys.

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ldap

Lightweight - Hack The Box

Lightweight was a fun box that uses Linux capabilities set on tcpdump so we can capture packets on the loopback interface and find credentials in an LDAP session. We then find more credentials in the source code of the web application and finally priv esc to root by abusing a copy of the openssl program that all has Linux caps set on it.

Ypuffy - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ypuffy, an OpenBSD machine from Hack the Box involving a somewhat easy shell access followed by a privesc using CA signed SSH keys.

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suid

Irked - Hack The Box

Irked is an easy box running a backdoored UnrealIRC installation. I used a Metasploit module to get a shell then ran steghide to obtain the SSH credentials for the low privileged user then got root by exploiting a vulnerable SUID binary.

Zipper - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Zipper, a Linux box running the Zabbix network monitoring software inside a docker container.

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metasploit

Irked - Hack The Box

Irked is an easy box running a backdoored UnrealIRC installation. I used a Metasploit module to get a shell then ran steghide to obtain the SSH credentials for the low privileged user then got root by exploiting a vulnerable SUID binary.

Frolic - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Frolic, a CTF-like machine with esoteric programming languages and a nice priv esc that requires binary exploitation.

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pivoting

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Vault - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Vault, a machine with pivoting across different network segments.

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cve

Irked - Hack The Box

Irked is an easy box running a backdoored UnrealIRC installation. I used a Metasploit module to get a shell then ran steghide to obtain the SSH credentials for the low privileged user then got root by exploiting a vulnerable SUID binary.

Redcross - Hack The Box

Redcross has a bit of everything: Cross-Site Scripting, a little bit of SQL injection, reviewing C source code to find a command injection vulnerability, light exploit modification and enumeration.

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cronjob

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

Teacher - Hack The Box

Teacher uses the Moodle Open Source Learning platform and contains a vulnerability in the math formula that gives us RCE. The credentials for the Moodle application are found in a .png file that contains text instead of an actual image. After getting a shell with the math formula, we find the low privilege user credentials in the MySQL database. We then escalate to root by abusing a backup script running from a cronjob as root.

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ntfs ads

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

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asp

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

Conceal - Hack The Box

Conceal uses IPSec to secure connectivity to the server and nothing is exposed by default except SNMP and IPSec. After finding the preshared key by enumerating with SNMP, we connect to the server, upload an ASP payload to gain RCE then privesc to SYSTEM using RottenPotato. Not a bad box overall, but the initial part of figuring out the IPSec configuration parameters took me a while to figure out/guess.

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responder

Querier - Hack The Box

To solve Querier, we find an Excel spreadsheet that contains a VBA macro then use Responder to capture NTLM hashes from the server by forcing it to connect back to our machine with xp_dirtree. After cracking the hash, we gain RCE on the server by using the standard xp_cmdshell command. The Administator credentials are found in a Group Policy Preference file.

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

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tcp bind shellcode

TCP bind shellcode

A bind shellcode listens on a socket, waiting for a connection to be made to the server then executes arbitrary code, typically spawning shell for the connecting user. This post demonstrates a simple TCP bind shellcode that executes a shell.

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tcp reverse shellcode

TCP reverse shellcode

A TCP reverse shell connects back to the attacker machine, then executes a shell and redirects all input & output to the socket. This is especially useful when a firewall denies incoming connections but allows outgoing connections.

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binary exploit

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drupal

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kerberos

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polymorphic

Polymorphic Linux Shellcode

This blog post shows 3 polymorphic variants of common shellcodes found on shell-storm.org.

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crypter

Creating a custom shellcode crypter

For this last SLAE assignment, I’ve created a custom shellcode crypter using the Salsa20 stream cipher. Salsa20 is a family of 256-bit stream ciphers designed in 2005 and submitted to eSTREAM, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project.

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go

Creating a custom shellcode crypter

For this last SLAE assignment, I’ve created a custom shellcode crypter using the Salsa20 stream cipher. Salsa20 is a family of 256-bit stream ciphers designed in 2005 and submitted to eSTREAM, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project.

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capabilities

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ssti

Oz - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Oz machine from Hack the Box.

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wsl

Secnotes - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Hack the Box SecNotes machine from 0xdf.

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csrf

Secnotes - Hack The Box

This blog post is a writeup of the Hack the Box SecNotes machine from 0xdf.

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openbsd

Ypuffy - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ypuffy, an OpenBSD machine from Hack the Box involving a somewhat easy shell access followed by a privesc using CA signed SSH keys.

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ssh

Ypuffy - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ypuffy, an OpenBSD machine from Hack the Box involving a somewhat easy shell access followed by a privesc using CA signed SSH keys.

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ca

Ypuffy - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ypuffy, an OpenBSD machine from Hack the Box involving a somewhat easy shell access followed by a privesc using CA signed SSH keys.

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zabbix

Zipper - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Zipper, a Linux box running the Zabbix network monitoring software inside a docker container.

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api

Zipper - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Zipper, a Linux box running the Zabbix network monitoring software inside a docker container.

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telnet

Access - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Access, a Windows machine involving some enumeration of an Access DB, an Outlook PST and a priv esc using Windows Credential Manager.

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access

Access - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Access, a Windows machine involving some enumeration of an Access DB, an Outlook PST and a priv esc using Windows Credential Manager.

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outlook

Access - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Access, a Windows machine involving some enumeration of an Access DB, an Outlook PST and a priv esc using Windows Credential Manager.

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credential manager

Access - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Access, a Windows machine involving some enumeration of an Access DB, an Outlook PST and a priv esc using Windows Credential Manager.

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ms-dos

Ethereal - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ethereal, a very difficult Windows machine that I solved using the unintented rotten potato method before the box was patched by the HTB staff.

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dns exfiltration

Ethereal - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ethereal, a very difficult Windows machine that I solved using the unintented rotten potato method before the box was patched by the HTB staff.

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rotten potato

Ethereal - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ethereal, a very difficult Windows machine that I solved using the unintented rotten potato method before the box was patched by the HTB staff.

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efs

Ethereal - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Ethereal, a very difficult Windows machine that I solved using the unintented rotten potato method before the box was patched by the HTB staff.

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networking

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

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bgp

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

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snmp

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

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mitm

Carrier - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Carrier, a Linux machine I created for Hack the Box requiring some networking knowledge to perform MITM with BGP prefix hijacking.

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esoteric language

Frolic - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Frolic, a CTF-like machine with esoteric programming languages and a nice priv esc that requires binary exploitation.

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rop

Frolic - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Frolic, a CTF-like machine with esoteric programming languages and a nice priv esc that requires binary exploitation.

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buffer overflow

Frolic - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Frolic, a CTF-like machine with esoteric programming languages and a nice priv esc that requires binary exploitation.

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binary exploitation

Frolic - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Frolic, a CTF-like machine with esoteric programming languages and a nice priv esc that requires binary exploitation.

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joomla

Curling - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Curling, a pretty easy box with Joomla running. We can log in after doing basic recon and some educated guessing of the password.

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cron

Curling - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Curling, a pretty easy box with Joomla running. We can log in after doing basic recon and some educated guessing of the password.

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easy

Curling - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Curling, a pretty easy box with Joomla running. We can log in after doing basic recon and some educated guessing of the password.

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openvpn

Vault - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Vault, a machine with pivoting across different network segments.

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firewall

Vault - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Vault, a machine with pivoting across different network segments.

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gpg

Vault - Hack The Box

This is the writeup for Vault, a machine with pivoting across different network segments.

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xss

Redcross - Hack The Box

Redcross has a bit of everything: Cross-Site Scripting, a little bit of SQL injection, reviewing C source code to find a command injection vulnerability, light exploit modification and enumeration.

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pgsql

Redcross - Hack The Box

Redcross has a bit of everything: Cross-Site Scripting, a little bit of SQL injection, reviewing C source code to find a command injection vulnerability, light exploit modification and enumeration.

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nss

Redcross - Hack The Box

Redcross has a bit of everything: Cross-Site Scripting, a little bit of SQL injection, reviewing C source code to find a command injection vulnerability, light exploit modification and enumeration.

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moodle

Teacher - Hack The Box

Teacher uses the Moodle Open Source Learning platform and contains a vulnerability in the math formula that gives us RCE. The credentials for the Moodle application are found in a .png file that contains text instead of an actual image. After getting a shell with the math formula, we find the low privilege user credentials in the MySQL database. We then escalate to root by abusing a backup script running from a cronjob as root.

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mysql

Teacher - Hack The Box

Teacher uses the Moodle Open Source Learning platform and contains a vulnerability in the math formula that gives us RCE. The credentials for the Moodle application are found in a .png file that contains text instead of an actual image. After getting a shell with the math formula, we find the low privilege user credentials in the MySQL database. We then escalate to root by abusing a backup script running from a cronjob as root.

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tar

Teacher - Hack The Box

Teacher uses the Moodle Open Source Learning platform and contains a vulnerability in the math formula that gives us RCE. The credentials for the Moodle application are found in a .png file that contains text instead of an actual image. After getting a shell with the math formula, we find the low privilege user credentials in the MySQL database. We then escalate to root by abusing a backup script running from a cronjob as root.

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stego

Irked - Hack The Box

Irked is an easy box running a backdoored UnrealIRC installation. I used a Metasploit module to get a shell then ran steghide to obtain the SSH credentials for the low privileged user then got root by exploiting a vulnerable SUID binary.

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exploit development

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

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asm

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

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nginx

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

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keepass

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

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lfi

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

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insane

Bighead - Hack The Box

Bighead was an extremely difficult box by 3mrgnc3 that starts with website enumeration to find two sub-domains and determine there is a custom webserver software running behind an Nginx proxy. We then need to exploit a buffer overflow in the HEAD requests by creating a custom exploit. After getting a shell, there’s some pivoting involved to access a limited SSH server, then an LFI to finally get a shell as SYSTEM. For the final stretch there is an NTFS alternate data stream with a Keepass file that contains the final flag.

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john

Lightweight - Hack The Box

Lightweight was a fun box that uses Linux capabilities set on tcpdump so we can capture packets on the loopback interface and find credentials in an LDAP session. We then find more credentials in the source code of the web application and finally priv esc to root by abusing a copy of the openssl program that all has Linux caps set on it.

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caps

Lightweight - Hack The Box

Lightweight was a fun box that uses Linux capabilities set on tcpdump so we can capture packets on the loopback interface and find credentials in an LDAP session. We then find more credentials in the source code of the web application and finally priv esc to root by abusing a copy of the openssl program that all has Linux caps set on it.

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tcpdump

Lightweight - Hack The Box

Lightweight was a fun box that uses Linux capabilities set on tcpdump so we can capture packets on the loopback interface and find credentials in an LDAP session. We then find more credentials in the source code of the web application and finally priv esc to root by abusing a copy of the openssl program that all has Linux caps set on it.

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password cracking

Lightweight - Hack The Box

Lightweight was a fun box that uses Linux capabilities set on tcpdump so we can capture packets on the loopback interface and find credentials in an LDAP session. We then find more credentials in the source code of the web application and finally priv esc to root by abusing a copy of the openssl program that all has Linux caps set on it.

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ipsec

Conceal - Hack The Box

Conceal uses IPSec to secure connectivity to the server and nothing is exposed by default except SNMP and IPSec. After finding the preshared key by enumerating with SNMP, we connect to the server, upload an ASP payload to gain RCE then privesc to SYSTEM using RottenPotato. Not a bad box overall, but the initial part of figuring out the IPSec configuration parameters took me a while to figure out/guess.

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vpn

Conceal - Hack The Box

Conceal uses IPSec to secure connectivity to the server and nothing is exposed by default except SNMP and IPSec. After finding the preshared key by enumerating with SNMP, we connect to the server, upload an ASP payload to gain RCE then privesc to SYSTEM using RottenPotato. Not a bad box overall, but the initial part of figuring out the IPSec configuration parameters took me a while to figure out/guess.

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rotten tomato

Conceal - Hack The Box

Conceal uses IPSec to secure connectivity to the server and nothing is exposed by default except SNMP and IPSec. After finding the preshared key by enumerating with SNMP, we connect to the server, upload an ASP payload to gain RCE then privesc to SYSTEM using RottenPotato. Not a bad box overall, but the initial part of figuring out the IPSec configuration parameters took me a while to figure out/guess.

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wordpress

Chaos - Hack The Box

Chaos starts with some enumeration to find a hidden wordpress site that contains a set of credentials for a webmail site. There’s some simple crypto we have to do to decrypt an attachment and find a hidden link on the site. We then exploit the PDF creation website which uses LaTeX and gain RCE. After getting a reverse shell, we do some digging into the user’s folders and find the webmin root credentials stored in the Firefox user profile.

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weak credentials

Chaos - Hack The Box

Chaos starts with some enumeration to find a hidden wordpress site that contains a set of credentials for a webmail site. There’s some simple crypto we have to do to decrypt an attachment and find a hidden link on the site. We then exploit the PDF creation website which uses LaTeX and gain RCE. After getting a reverse shell, we do some digging into the user’s folders and find the webmin root credentials stored in the Firefox user profile.

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pdf

Chaos - Hack The Box

Chaos starts with some enumeration to find a hidden wordpress site that contains a set of credentials for a webmail site. There’s some simple crypto we have to do to decrypt an attachment and find a hidden link on the site. We then exploit the PDF creation website which uses LaTeX and gain RCE. After getting a reverse shell, we do some digging into the user’s folders and find the webmin root credentials stored in the Firefox user profile.

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LaTeX

Chaos - Hack The Box

Chaos starts with some enumeration to find a hidden wordpress site that contains a set of credentials for a webmail site. There’s some simple crypto we have to do to decrypt an attachment and find a hidden link on the site. We then exploit the PDF creation website which uses LaTeX and gain RCE. After getting a reverse shell, we do some digging into the user’s folders and find the webmin root credentials stored in the Firefox user profile.

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firefox

Chaos - Hack The Box

Chaos starts with some enumeration to find a hidden wordpress site that contains a set of credentials for a webmail site. There’s some simple crypto we have to do to decrypt an attachment and find a hidden link on the site. We then exploit the PDF creation website which uses LaTeX and gain RCE. After getting a reverse shell, we do some digging into the user’s folders and find the webmin root credentials stored in the Firefox user profile.

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saved credentials

Chaos - Hack The Box

Chaos starts with some enumeration to find a hidden wordpress site that contains a set of credentials for a webmail site. There’s some simple crypto we have to do to decrypt an attachment and find a hidden link on the site. We then exploit the PDF creation website which uses LaTeX and gain RCE. After getting a reverse shell, we do some digging into the user’s folders and find the webmin root credentials stored in the Firefox user profile.

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scf

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

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meterpreter

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

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port forwarding

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

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kerberoasting

Sizzle - Hack The Box

Sizzle was an amazing box that requires using some Windows and Active Directory exploitation techniques such as Kerberoasting to get encrypted hashes from Service Principal Names accounts. The privesc involves adding a computer to domain then using DCsync to obtain the NTLM hashes from the domain controller and then log on as Administrator to the server using the Pass-The-Hash technique.

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apache

Help - Hack The Box

Help showed that a small programming mistake in a web application can introduce a critical security vulnerability. In this case, the PHP application errors out when uploading invalid extensions such as PHP files but it doesn’t delete the file. Combined with a predictable filename generated based on MD5 of original file + epoch, we can get RCE.

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kernel exploit

Help - Hack The Box

Help showed that a small programming mistake in a web application can introduce a critical security vulnerability. In this case, the PHP application errors out when uploading invalid extensions such as PHP files but it doesn’t delete the file. Combined with a predictable filename generated based on MD5 of original file + epoch, we can get RCE.

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helpdeskz

Help - Hack The Box

Help showed that a small programming mistake in a web application can introduce a critical security vulnerability. In this case, the PHP application errors out when uploading invalid extensions such as PHP files but it doesn’t delete the file. Combined with a predictable filename generated based on MD5 of original file + epoch, we can get RCE.

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smtp

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

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screen

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

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exploit

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

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waf

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

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tamper script

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

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weak ssh keys

Flujab - Hack The Box

Flujab was without a doubt one of the toughest HTB box. It’s got a ton of vhosts that force you to enumerate a lot of things and make sure you don’t get distracted by the quantity of decoys and trolls left around. The key on this box is to stay ‘in scope’ as the box author hinted at before the box was released, so that means enumerating two specific domains without getting distracted by all the other stuff on the box.

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hardcoded credentials

Querier - Hack The Box

To solve Querier, we find an Excel spreadsheet that contains a VBA macro then use Responder to capture NTLM hashes from the server by forcing it to connect back to our machine with xp_dirtree. After cracking the hash, we gain RCE on the server by using the standard xp_cmdshell command. The Administator credentials are found in a Group Policy Preference file.

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mssql

Querier - Hack The Box

To solve Querier, we find an Excel spreadsheet that contains a VBA macro then use Responder to capture NTLM hashes from the server by forcing it to connect back to our machine with xp_dirtree. After cracking the hash, we gain RCE on the server by using the standard xp_cmdshell command. The Administator credentials are found in a Group Policy Preference file.

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gpp

Querier - Hack The Box

To solve Querier, we find an Excel spreadsheet that contains a VBA macro then use Responder to capture NTLM hashes from the server by forcing it to connect back to our machine with xp_dirtree. After cracking the hash, we gain RCE on the server by using the standard xp_cmdshell command. The Administator credentials are found in a Group Policy Preference file.

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impacket

Querier - Hack The Box

To solve Querier, we find an Excel spreadsheet that contains a VBA macro then use Responder to capture NTLM hashes from the server by forcing it to connect back to our machine with xp_dirtree. After cracking the hash, we gain RCE on the server by using the standard xp_cmdshell command. The Administator credentials are found in a Group Policy Preference file.

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ftp

Netmon - Hack The Box

I think Netmon had the quickest first blood on HTB yet. The user flag could be grabbed by just using anonymous FTP and retrieving it from the user directory. I guessed the PRTG admin password after finding an old backup file and changing the year in the password from 2018 to 2019. Once inside PRTG, I got RCE as SYSTEM by creating a sensor and using Nishang’s reverse shell oneliner.

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prtg

Netmon - Hack The Box

I think Netmon had the quickest first blood on HTB yet. The user flag could be grabbed by just using anonymous FTP and retrieving it from the user directory. I guessed the PRTG admin password after finding an old backup file and changing the year in the password from 2018 to 2019. Once inside PRTG, I got RCE as SYSTEM by creating a sensor and using Nishang’s reverse shell oneliner.

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nishang

Netmon - Hack The Box

I think Netmon had the quickest first blood on HTB yet. The user flag could be grabbed by just using anonymous FTP and retrieving it from the user directory. I guessed the PRTG admin password after finding an old backup file and changing the year in the password from 2018 to 2019. Once inside PRTG, I got RCE as SYSTEM by creating a sensor and using Nishang’s reverse shell oneliner.

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config backups

Netmon - Hack The Box

I think Netmon had the quickest first blood on HTB yet. The user flag could be grabbed by just using anonymous FTP and retrieving it from the user directory. I guessed the PRTG admin password after finding an old backup file and changing the year in the password from 2018 to 2019. Once inside PRTG, I got RCE as SYSTEM by creating a sensor and using Nishang’s reverse shell oneliner.

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gophish

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

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alpc

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

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reversing

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

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regeorg

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

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fuzzing

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

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proxychains

Hackback - Hack The Box

Hackback took me a long time to do. There are so many steps required just to get a shell. For extra difficulty, AppLocker is enabled and an outbound firewall policy is configured to block reverse shells. This box has a bit of everything: fuzzing, php, asp (for pivoting with reGeorg), command injection in a Powershell script, some light reversing. For the privesc, I used the diaghub vulnerability and modified an existing exploit to get a bind shell through netcat.

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smb

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

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smbmap

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

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vhosts

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

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python

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

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dns

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

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axfr

Friendzone - Hack The Box

Friendzone is an easy box with some light enumeration of open SMB shares and sub-domains. I used an LFI vulnerability combined with a writable SMB share to get RCE and a reverse shell. A cron job running as root executes a python script every few minutes and the OS module imported by the script is writable so I can modify it and add code to get a shell as root.

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